Smolensk Oblast


Smolensk Oblast
   An administrative region of the Russian Federation. Smolensk Oblast is located on the Eastern European Plain along Russia’s western frontier with Belarus. Within the federation, it borders the oblasts of Pskov, Tver, Moscow, Kaluga, and Bryansk. Smolensk is part of the Central Federal District and Economic Region. With approximately 1 million inhabitants, the region’s territory covers 49,800 square kilometers. The regional capital, Smolensk (pop. 325,000), lies on the Dnepr, which roughly divides the oblast into northern and southern halves. Regional agriculture is focused on animal husbandry and grain production. Smolensk was severely ravaged by the German invasion; however, postwar reconstruction allowed the region to develop into an important industrial center. Major industries include metalworking, computer manufacturing, power generation, chemicals, printing, and clothing. The region is comparatively poor in terms of natural resources, though coal and peat are mined. Smolensk Kristall, Russia’s leading diamond polisher and exporter, is located in the region. Gazprom is also a key part of the regional economy, as the oblast is a major transit zone for European-bound natural gas exports. Regional trade with Belarus is quite high, and the oblast controls the Moscow-Minsk highway, which serves as a route for Polish and German foreign trade with Russia.
   In the 1990s, Smolensk was part of the Red Belt of regions that supported the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (KPRF). The KPRF’s Gennady Zyuganov won a majority of the regional poll in the 1996 presidential election. The KPRF dominated the regional Duma, while its allies controlled the governorship, including Anatoly Glushenkov (1993–1998) and Aleksandr Prokhorov (1998–2002). In 2002, the pro-Kremlin candidate, Viktor Maslov, a security services officer, was elected to lead the region, thus demonstrating a new trend in regional politics; the election was marred by reports of intimidation of Prokhorov supporters by Maslov and his agents. Maslov was reappointed by Vladimir Putin. Since 2007, the governor has been Sergey Antufiev, who previously managed relations between the State Duma and compatriots in the Commonwealth of Independent States. In 2009, Antufiev welcomed the new patriarch Kirill I to the region, where the head of the Russian Orthodox Church was made an honorary citizen of the oblast. The Russian-American science-fiction author Isaac Asimov and the first person to orbit the earth, Yury Gagarin, were both born in the region.
   See also Alrosa; Space program.

Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. . 2010.

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  • Smolensk Oblast — ( ru. Смоленская область, Smolenskaya oblast ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its area is 49,786 square kilometers, population 1,019,000 (2005 est.) [http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/b00 25/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d000/i000070r.htm] ; 1,049,574… …   Wikipedia

  • Demidov, Smolensk Oblast — For other places with the same name, see Demidov (inhabited locality). Coordinates: 55°16′N 31°31′E / 55.267°N 31.517°E / 55.267; 31.517 …   Wikipedia

  • Safonovo, Smolensk Oblast — Safonovo ( ru. Сафоново) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Vopets River 102 km north east of Smolensk. It is the administrative center of Safonovsky District. Population: 46,800 (2005 est.); 48,209 (2002 Census); 56,571 (1989… …   Wikipedia

  • Pochinok, Smolensk Oblast — Pochinok ( ru. Починок) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Khmara River (Dnieper s basin) some 62 km southeast of Smolensk. Population: 9,500 (2005 est.); 9,578 (2002 Census); 10,753 (1989 Census).Pochinok was founded in 1868 as …   Wikipedia

  • Krasny, Smolensk Oblast — Krasny ( ru. Красный) is an urban type settlement in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Svinaya and Mereya Rivers 67 km Great Soviet Encyclopedia , entry on [http://dict.yandex.ru/art.xml?art=bse/00038/61100.htm encpage=bse …   Wikipedia

  • Rudnya, Smolensk Oblast — Rudnya ( ru. Рудня) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Malaya Berezina River (Dnieper s basin) some 68 km northwest of Smolensk. Population: 9,800 (2005 est.); 9,853 (2002 Census); 11,032 (1989 Census).Rudnya was first mentioned …   Wikipedia

  • Administrative divisions of Smolensk Oblast — *Cities and towns under the oblast s jurisdiction: **Smolensk (Смоленск) (administrative center) *** city districts : ****Leninsky (Ленинский) ****Promyshlenny (Промышленный) ****Zadneprovsky (Заднепровский) **Desnogorsk (Десногорск) *Districts:… …   Wikipedia

  • Smolensk — Смоленск …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Oblast de smolensk — Смоленская область (russe) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Smolensk — ( ru. Смоленск) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River, the administrative centre of Smolensk Oblast. Its population in 2003 was estimated as 351,100 (325,137 as of 2002 Census). Situated 360 kilometres (225 mi) west southwest… …   Wikipedia